Native microbiome impedes vertical transmission ofWolbachia in Anopheles mosquitoes
Factors influencing Wolbachia transfer into new species remain poorly understood. This is important as Wolbachia can influence speciation and is being developed as a novel arthropod-borne disease control approach. We show the native microbiota of Anopheles impede vertical transmission ofWolbachia. Antibiotic microbiome perturbation enables Wolbachia transmission in two Anophelesspecies. Mosquitoes with altered microbiomes do not exhibit blood meal-induced mortality associated with Wolbachia infection, suggesting that mosquitoes are killed by interactions betweenWolbachia and other bacteria present in the mosquito. We identified Asaia as the bacterium responsible for inhibiting Wolbachia transmission, and partially responsible for blood meal-induced mortality. These results suggest that microbial interactions profoundly affect the host, and that microbiome incompatibility may influence distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods.